Spring基础:快速入门spring boot(8):使用Junit进行测试

在这里插入图片描述

使用Junit或者TestNG可以进行单体测试,这篇文章简单说明一下如何在Spring boot的项目中使用Junit进行单体测试。

pom设定

pom中需要添加spring-boot-starter-test

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>

确认依赖

使用Java进行Unit测试至少需要Junit之类的测试框架,另外spring boot相关的测试还应该有一些Mock相关的依赖,这个spring-boot-starter-test到底包含什么,可以使用maven dependency来进行确认一下。

使用命令:mvn dependency:tree

结果信息:

[INFO] --- maven-dependency-plugin:3.0.2:tree (default-cli) @ springbootdemo ---
[INFO] com.liumiaocn:springbootdemo:jar:0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-autoconfigure:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-logging:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- ch.qos.logback:logback-classic:jar:1.2.3:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  |  \- ch.qos.logback:logback-core:jar:1.2.3:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- org.apache.logging.log4j:log4j-to-slf4j:jar:2.10.0:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  |  \- org.apache.logging.log4j:log4j-api:jar:2.10.0:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  \- org.slf4j:jul-to-slf4j:jar:1.7.25:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:jar:1.3.2:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.yaml:snakeyaml:jar:1.19:runtime
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-json:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-databind:jar:2.9.7:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-annotations:jar:2.9.0:compile
[INFO] |  |  |  \- com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-core:jar:2.9.7:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.datatype:jackson-datatype-jdk8:jar:2.9.7:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- com.fasterxml.jackson.datatype:jackson-datatype-jsr310:jar:2.9.7:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- com.fasterxml.jackson.module:jackson-module-parameter-names:jar:2.9.7:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-tomcat:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-core:jar:8.5.34:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-el:jar:8.5.34:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.apache.tomcat.embed:tomcat-embed-websocket:jar:8.5.34:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.hibernate.validator:hibernate-validator:jar:6.0.13.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- javax.validation:validation-api:jar:2.0.1.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  +- org.jboss.logging:jboss-logging:jar:3.3.2.Final:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- com.fasterxml:classmate:jar:1.3.4:compile
[INFO] |  +- org.springframework:spring-web:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  |  \- org.springframework:spring-beans:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |  \- org.springframework:spring-webmvc:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     +- org.springframework:spring-aop:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     +- org.springframework:spring-context:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] |     \- org.springframework:spring-expression:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO] \- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:test
[INFO]    +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-test:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:test
[INFO]    +- org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-test-autoconfigure:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:test
[INFO]    +- com.jayway.jsonpath:json-path:jar:2.4.0:test
[INFO]    |  +- net.minidev:json-smart:jar:2.3:test
[INFO]    |  |  \- net.minidev:accessors-smart:jar:1.2:test
[INFO]    |  |     \- org.ow2.asm:asm:jar:5.0.4:test
[INFO]    |  \- org.slf4j:slf4j-api:jar:1.7.25:compile
[INFO]    +- junit:junit:jar:4.12:test
[INFO]    +- org.assertj:assertj-core:jar:3.9.1:test
[INFO]    +- org.mockito:mockito-core:jar:2.15.0:test
[INFO]    |  +- net.bytebuddy:byte-buddy:jar:1.7.11:test
[INFO]    |  +- net.bytebuddy:byte-buddy-agent:jar:1.7.11:test
[INFO]    |  \- org.objenesis:objenesis:jar:2.6:test
[INFO]    +- org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:jar:1.3:test
[INFO]    +- org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:jar:1.3:test
[INFO]    +- org.skyscreamer:jsonassert:jar:1.5.0:test
[INFO]    |  \- com.vaadin.external.google:android-json:jar:0.0.20131108.vaadin1:test
[INFO]    +- org.springframework:spring-core:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO]    |  \- org.springframework:spring-jcl:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:compile
[INFO]    +- org.springframework:spring-test:jar:5.0.10.RELEASE:test
[INFO]    \- org.xmlunit:xmlunit-core:jar:2.5.1:test

在org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test:jar:2.0.6.RELEASE:test下面我们看到了junit:junit:jar:4.12:test以及org.mockito:mockito-core:jar:2.15.0:test的信息,这是spring boot已经整理完毕的内容,我们只需要写TestCase即可。

创建测试目录

根据惯例创建测试目录如下:

liumiaocn:src liumiao$ ls
main test
liumiaocn:src liumiao$ find . -type d
.
./test
./test/java
./test/java/com
./test/java/com/liumiaocn
./test/java/com/liumiaocn/springbootdemo
./main
./main/resources
./main/java
./main/java/com
./main/java/com/liumiaocn
./main/java/com/liumiaocn/springbootdemo
liumiaocn:src liumiao$

创建测试用例

代码示例

liumiaocn:src liumiao$ cat ./test/java/com/liumiaocn/springbootdemo/SpringbootdemoApplicationTests.java 
package com.liumiaocn.springbootdemo;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class SpringbootdemoApplicationTests {

	@Test
	public void contextLoads() {
	}

}
liumiaocn:src liumiao$ 

代码说明

  • COC:根据惯例进行定义测试类的名称
  • SpringBootTest注解:SpringBootTest是1.4之后引入的一个注解,使得springboot的测试变得更加方便
  • RunWith注解:使用了此注解的情况下,JUnit会调用RunWith中所指定的类。不同的框架提供相应的Runner用于测试,比如Junit自己的JUnit4.class,在比如spring的SpringJUnit4ClassRunner或者SpringRunner,都可与之结合使用。
  • Test注解:Junit的常用注解之一,用于定义测试方法,不再赘述。

执行测试

命令: mvn test

部分执行内容如下:

[INFO] Results:
[INFO] 
[INFO] Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

在实施的结果中可以看到运行起来的测试用例为1个,没有失败/跳过/出错的。

总结

通过spring-boot-starter-test的引入,在springboot中已经做好所有单元测试的准备,根据惯例的方式设定测试目录和文件名称,结合使用springboottest等注解,可以使用Junit对springboot的应用进行测试。最后使用mvn test即可运行相关的测试用例并可确认结果,后面将会进一步说明如何与sonarqube以及jacoco等进行结合确认代码扫描等。

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