python编程基础:快速微服务框架指南:flask:4: Restful的CRUD

这里写图片描述
这篇文章中我们将通过对HelloWorld的message进行操作,介绍一下如何使用flask进行Restful的CRUD。

概要信息

项目说明
官方网站https://www.palletsprojects.com/p/flask/
开源/闭源开源
License类别BSD License
代码管理地址https://github.com/pallets/flask
开发语言Python
支持平台鉴于python的跨平台特性,可运行于等多种操作系统
当前版本1.0.2 (2018/05/02)

事前准备:flask

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ which flask
/usr/local/bin/flask
liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ flask --version
Flask 1.0.2
Python 2.7.10 (default, Jul 15 2017, 17:16:57) 
[GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Apple LLVM 9.0.0 (clang-900.0.31)]
liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ 

代码示例:HTTP谓词(GET)

就像angular的插值表达式在模版中的作用一样,在flask中也可以一样使用,如果不熟悉angular的插值表达式的话也不要紧,看完下面的例子,基本上就会有一个大致的印象。

代码示例

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ cat flask_4.py 
#!/usr/bin/python

from flask import Flask
from flask import render_template

app = Flask(__name__)

greeting_messages=["Hello World", "Hello Python"]

@app.route("/api/messages",methods=['GET'])
def get_messages():
    return render_template("resttest.html",messages=greeting_messages) 

if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.debug=True
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0',port=7000)
liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

模版文件

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ cat templates/resttest.html 
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
  <meta charset="utf-8">
  <title>Hello Restful</title>
</head>

<body>
        {% for message in messages %}
  <h1>{{ message }}</h1>
        {% endfor %}
</body>

</html>
liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

代码解析:app.route中指定了HTTP谓词GET,缺省GET可以省略,如果一个方法对应多个谓词动作,通过request.method来分离时,可以写成methods=[‘GET’,’POST’]的形式

执行&确认

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ ./flask_4.py 
 * Serving Flask app "flask_4" (lazy loading)
 * Environment: production
   WARNING: Do not use the development server in a production environment.
   Use a production WSGI server instead.
 * Debug mode: on
 * Running on http://0.0.0.0:7000/ (Press CTRL+C to quit)
 * Restarting with stat
 * Debugger is active!
 * Debugger PIN: 131-533-062

页面确认
这里写图片描述

代码示例:HTTP谓词(DELETE|PUT|POST)

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ cat flask_4.py 
#!/usr/bin/python

from flask import Flask
from flask import render_template
from flask import request
import json

app = Flask(__name__)

greeting_messages=["Hello World", "Hello Python"]

#HTTP: GET: Retrieve operation
@app.route("/api/messages",methods=['GET'])
def get_messages():
    return render_template("resttest.html",messages=greeting_messages) 

#HTTP: DELETE: Delete operation
@app.route("/api/messages/<messageid>",methods=['DELETE'])
def delete_message(messageid):
    global greeting_messages
    del greeting_messages[int(messageid)]
    return render_template("resttest.html",messages=greeting_messages) 

#HTTP: PUT:  Update operation
#HTTP: POST: Create operation
@app.route("/api/messages/<messageid>",methods=['PUT','POST'])
def update_message(messageid):
    global greeting_message
    msg_info=json.loads(request.get_data(True,True,False))
    #msg_info=request.args.get('message_info')
    #msg_info=request.form.get('message_info','default value')
    #msg_info=request.values.get('message_info','hello...')
    greeting_messages.append("Hello " + msg_info["message_info"])
    return render_template("resttest.html",messages=greeting_messages) 

if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.debug=True
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0',port=7000)
liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

执行&结果确认

执行日志

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ ./flask_4.py 
 * Serving Flask app "flask_4" (lazy loading)
 * Environment: production
   WARNING: Do not use the development server in a production environment.
   Use a production WSGI server instead.
 * Debug mode: on
 * Running on http://0.0.0.0:7000/ (Press CTRL+C to quit)
 * Restarting with stat
 * Debugger is active!
 * Debugger PIN: 131-533-062

结果确认:Delete

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ curl -X DELETE http://localhost:7000/api/messages/1
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Hello Restful</title>
</head>

<body>

    <h1>Hello World</h1>

</body>

</html>liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

可以看到执行一次DELETE之后,两条消息现在只剩下一条消息了,接下来使用POST添加再添加一条

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ curl -X POST -d '{"message_info":"LiuMiaoPost"}' http://localhost:7000/api/messages/3
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Hello Restful</title>
</head>

<body>

    <h1>Hello World</h1>

    <h1>Hello LiuMiaoPost</h1>

</body>

</html>liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

再执行一次PUT操作

liumiaocn:flask liumiao$ curl -X PUT -d '{"message_info":"LiuMiaoPut"}' http://localhost:7000/api/messages/4
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Hello Restful</title>
</head>

<body>

    <h1>Hello World</h1>

    <h1>Hello LiuMiaoPost</h1>

    <h1>Hello LiuMiaoPut</h1>

</body>

</html>liumiaocn:flask liumiao$

总结

这篇文章中,使用最简单的方式在flask中模拟了一下如何进行Restful的CRUD操作,当然,实际的做法有很多种,在接下来的文章中还会介绍另外一种非常常见的轮子flask-restful.

淼叔 CSDN认证博客专家 神经网络 TensorFlow NLP
资深架构师,PMP、OCP、CSM、HPE University讲师,EXIN DevOps Professional与DevOps Master认证讲师,曾担任HPE GD China DevOps & Agile Leader,帮助企业级客户提供DevOps咨询培训以及实施指导。熟悉通信和金融领域,有超过十年金融外汇行业的架构设计、开发、维护经验,在十几年的IT从业生涯中拥有了软件开发设计领域接近全生命周期的经验和知识积累,著有企业级DevOps技术与工具实战。
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