Vmware添加磁盘的方法:扩展磁盘

这篇文章介绍了一下如何在Vmare下添加或扩展磁盘并使之有效。

场景

创建Linux时分配磁盘空间随着使用的增加,使用率逐渐升高,此时需要在添加或者扩展一下磁盘。
比如:此Linux(CentOS 7.3)的磁盘为20G,目前已经使用到接近80%

[root@mail ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.3.1611 (Core) 
[root@mail ~]# df
Filesystem                  1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl_angular-root  17811456 13985948   3825508  79% /
devtmpfs                      1521180        0   1521180   0% /dev
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         1532160     8776   1523384   1% /run
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                     1038336   123500    914836  12% /boot
tmpfs                          306432        0    306432   0% /run/user/0
[root@mail ~]#

扩展磁盘或者添加磁盘

这里写图片描述
Vmware下有两种方式:

添加磁盘
扩展磁盘

注意:扩展磁盘需要在此虚拟机停止的状态下进行,同时扩展的数字是扩展后的预期大小,比如事前为20G,希望扩展10G,应该输入30。这篇文章使用扩展磁盘的方式。

确认状态

扩展后,重新启动linux,发现df状态没有变化

[root@mail ~]# df
Filesystem                  1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl_angular-root  17811456 13985948   3825508  79% /
devtmpfs                      1521180        0   1521180   0% /dev
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         1532160     8776   1523384   1% /run
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                     1038336   123500    914836  12% /boot
tmpfs                          306432        0    306432   0% /run/user/0
[root@mail ~]#

使用fdisk确认磁盘空间是否已经扩展

[root@mail ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes, 62914560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0005ba89

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl_angular-root: 18.2 GB, 18249416704 bytes, 35643392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/cl_angular-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

[root@mail ~]# 

可以看到“Disk /dev/sda: 32.2 GB”,已经扩展了10G空间。

扩展分区

[root@mail ~]# fdisk /dev/sda
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.


Command (m for help): n
Partition type:
   p   primary (2 primary, 0 extended, 2 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p
Partition number (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (41943040-62914559, default 41943040): 
Using default value 41943040
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (41943040-62914559, default 62914559): 
Using default value 62914559
Partition 3 of type Linux and of size 10 GiB is set

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-3, default 3): 3
Hex code (type L to list all codes): L

 0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris        
 1  FAT12           27  Hidden NTFS Win 82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 2  XENIX root      39  Plan 9          83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 3  XENIX usr       3c  PartitionMagic  84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
 4  FAT16 <32M      40  Venix 80286     85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx         
 5  Extended        41  PPC PReP Boot   86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data    
 6  FAT16           42  SFS             87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
 7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT 4d  QNX4.x          88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility   
 8  AIX             4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt         
 9  AIX bootable    4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access     
 a  OS/2 Boot Manag 50  OnTrack DM      94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O        
 b  W95 FAT32       51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor      
 c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 52  CP/M            a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs        
 e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT            
 f  W95 Ext'd (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            55  EZ-Drive        a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    56  Golden Bow      a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor      
12  Compaq diagnost 5c  Priam Edisk     a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor      
14  Hidden FAT16 <3 61  SpeedStor       ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary  
16  Hidden FAT16    63  GNU HURD or Sys af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS    
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 64  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE 
18  AST SmartSleep  65  Novell Netware  b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 70  DiskSecure Mult bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep        
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT            
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1 80  Old Minix      
Hex code (type L to list all codes): 8e
Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux LVM'

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.
[root@mail ~]#

执行 partprobe或者重启

执行 partprobe命令用于将磁盘分区表变化信息通知内核,并请求操作系统重新加载分区表,可以避免必须重新启动的问题,这里我们reboot一下。

分区确认

通过fdisk可以确认到已经添加了sda3

[root@mail ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 32.2 GB, 32212254720 bytes, 62914560 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0005ba89

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     2099199     1048576   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         2099200    41943039    19921920   8e  Linux LVM
/dev/sda3        41943040    62914559    10485760   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/cl_angular-root: 18.2 GB, 18249416704 bytes, 35643392 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/cl_angular-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

[root@mail ~]# 

扩展vg

基本LVM知识,进行vg扩展,不再赘述。

[root@mail ~]# pvcreate /dev/sda3
  Physical volume "/dev/sda3" successfully created.
[root@mail ~]# vgs
  VG         #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize  VFree
  cl_angular   1   2   0 wz--n- 19.00g    0 
[root@mail ~]# vgextend cl_angular /dev/sda3
  Volume group "cl_angular" successfully extended
[root@mail ~]# vgs
  VG         #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize  VFree 
  cl_angular   2   2   0 wz--n- 28.99g 10.00g
[root@mail ~]# 

扩展lv

可以将此lv全部添加或者部分添加,我们这里全部添加。

[root@mail ~]# lvs
  LV   VG         Attr       LSize  Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  root cl_angular -wi-ao---- 17.00g                                                    
  swap cl_angular -wi-ao----  2.00g                                                    
[root@mail ~]# lvextend /dev/cl_angular/root /dev/sda3
  Size of logical volume cl_angular/root changed from 17.00 GiB (4351 extents) to 26.99 GiB (6910 extents).
  Logical volume cl_angular/root successfully resized.
[root@mail ~]# lvs
  LV   VG         Attr       LSize  Pool Origin Data%  Meta%  Move Log Cpy%Sync Convert
  root cl_angular -wi-ao---- 26.99g                                                    
  swap cl_angular -wi-ao----  2.00g                                                    
[root@mail ~]# 

df状态确认

此时df状态还没有变化

[root@mail ~]# df
Filesystem                  1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl_angular-root  17811456 13986168   3825288  79% /
devtmpfs                      1521180        0   1521180   0% /dev
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         1532160     8808   1523352   1% /run
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                     1038336   123500    914836  12% /boot
tmpfs                          306432        0    306432   0% /run/user/0
[root@mail ~]# 

xfs_growfs

使用xfs_growfs可以将xfs文件系统进行online方式的扩展,它会将data block进行调整。

[root@mail ~]# xfs_growfs /dev/mapper/cl_angular-root
meta-data=/dev/mapper/cl_angular-root isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=1113856 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0 spinodes=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=4455424, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal               bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
data blocks changed from 4455424 to 7075840
[root@mail ~]#

再次确认df状态, 添加的10G空间已经有效,使用率也降到了50%。

[root@mail ~]# df
Filesystem                  1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl_angular-root  28293120 13986252  14306868  50% /
devtmpfs                      1521180        0   1521180   0% /dev
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                         1532160     8808   1523352   1% /run
tmpfs                         1532160        0   1532160   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                     1038336   123500    914836  12% /boot
tmpfs                          306432        0    306432   0% /run/user/0
[root@mail ~]#

总结

这篇文章介绍了如何vmware下如何扩展磁盘,其实后面的命令均为lvm操作,基本上在linux或者unix的卷操作上大体类似。

淼叔 CSDN认证博客专家 神经网络 TensorFlow NLP
资深架构师,PMP、OCP、CSM、HPE University讲师,EXIN DevOps Professional与DevOps Master认证讲师,曾担任HPE GD China DevOps & Agile Leader,帮助企业级客户提供DevOps咨询培训以及实施指导。熟悉通信和金融领域,有超过十年金融外汇行业的架构设计、开发、维护经验,在十几年的IT从业生涯中拥有了软件开发设计领域接近全生命周期的经验和知识积累,著有企业级DevOps技术与工具实战。
已标记关键词 清除标记
©️2020 CSDN 皮肤主题: 数字20 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页