go语言快速入门:IPC之Socket(9)

多进程之间的通信常见的手段有管道/信号量/共享内存/Socket等,在上篇文章中介绍了管道的使用方法。管道在多进程通信中使用方便但是也具局限性,当通信双方在不同的机器上的时候通信方式更多采用Socket方式。在这篇文章中我们将会继续探索如何使用go所提供的net包等实现TCP和UDP方式的Socket通信。

传输层协议

OSI模型

OSI七层模型,简单来说,下三层主要负责数据通信,而上三层主要负责数据处理。处于第四层的传输层是通信子网和资源子网的接口和桥梁,整体起到承上启下的作用。而TCP和UDP则是传输层的协议。
这里写图片描述

TCP和UDP的区别

TCP和UDP最大的区别在于是否是面向连接的协议,作为面向连接的TCP协议,以此决定了在本质上是否是安全可靠的特性。
这里写图片描述

TCP通信

无论TCP方式还是UDP方式,常见的场景应用会分为服务器端和客户端的类型。作为面向连接的TCP方式,服务器端的应用一般会绑定到某一端口,然后再此端口上进行监听,当其受到客户端的连接时便会进行交互。

Server端实现

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# cat basic-tcp-server.go
package main

import "fmt"
import "os"
import "net"
import "time"

func main() {
        //get a tcp address
        tcp_address, err := net.ResolveTCPAddr("tcp4", ":8848")
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when getting a tcp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //listen to the tcp address
        tcp_listener, err := net.ListenTCP("tcp", tcp_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when listening to the tcp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //greeting words
        str_header := "Hello, this is information from tcp server , and current time is : "
        //main loop of tcp server
        for {

                //waiting connection from client
                tcp_connection, err := tcp_listener.Accept()
                if err != nil {
                        continue
                }

                //get the current time infor
                str_time := time.Now().String()
                //set greeting words for client connection
                str_greetings := str_header + str_time

                //send information to client
                tcp_connection.Write([]byte(str_greetings))
                tcp_connection.Close()
        }
}
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

客户端实现

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# cat basic-tcp-client.go
package main

import "fmt"
import "io/ioutil"
import "os"
import "net"

func main() {

        //usage of client application
        if len(os.Args) != 2 {
                fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Usage: %s host:port ", os.Args[0])
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //get a tcp address
        arg_address := os.Args[1]
        tcp_address, err := net.ResolveTCPAddr("tcp4", arg_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when getting a tcp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //connect to a tcp server
        tcp_connection, err := net.DialTCP("tcp", nil, tcp_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when connecting a tcp server...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //read information from tcp server
        str_greeting, err := ioutil.ReadAll(tcp_connection)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when reading from the tcp server...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //display the information
        fmt.Println(string(str_greeting))
        os.Exit(0)
}
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

执行确认

首先将server端运行起来,等待client端的连接

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-tcp-server.go

运行client端,可以得到从server端发过的信息

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-tcp-client.go 192.168.32.123:8848
Hello, this is information from tcp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 10:56:48.590783817 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#
[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-tcp-client.go 192.168.32.123:8848
Hello, this is information from tcp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 10:56:54.969361975 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#
[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-tcp-client.go 192.168.32.123:8848
Hello, this is information from tcp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 10:57:08.226263371 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

UDP方式

通过上述例子,可以了解到TCP方式的简单实现。接下来看一下UDP方式。UDP作为无连接的传输层协议的实现,在go所提供的API可以看到,形式已经非常类似。

Server端实现

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# cat basic-udp_server.go
package main

import "fmt"
import "os"
import "net"
import "time"

func main() {
        //get a udp address
        udp_address, err := net.ResolveUDPAddr("udp4", ":9848")
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when getting a udp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //listen to the udp address
        udp_connection, err := net.ListenUDP("udp", udp_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when listening to the udp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //greeting words
        str_header := "Hello, this is information from udp server , and current time is : "
        //main loop of udp server
        for {

                //read information from client
                var udp_buffer [1024]byte
                _, address, err := udp_connection.ReadFromUDP(udp_buffer[0:])
                if err != nil {
                        continue
                }

                //get the current time infor
                str_time := time.Now().String()
                //set greeting words for client connection
                str_greetings := str_header + str_time

                //send information to client
                udp_connection.WriteToUDP([]byte(str_greetings), address)
        }
}
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

客户端实现

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# cat basic-udp_client.go
package main

import "fmt"
import "os"
import "net"

func main() {

        //usage of client application
        if len(os.Args) != 2 {
                fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Usage: %s host:port ", os.Args[0])
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //get a udp address
        arg_address := os.Args[1]
        udp_address, err := net.ResolveUDPAddr("udp4", arg_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when getting a udp address...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //connect to a udp server
        udp_connection, err := net.DialUDP("udp", nil, udp_address)
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when connecting a udp server...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //send information to udp server
        _, err = udp_connection.Write([]byte("hello"))
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when sending message to the udp server...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //udp buffer
        var udp_buffer [1024]byte

        //read information from udp server
        num, err := udp_connection.Read(udp_buffer[0:])
        if err != nil {
                fmt.Println("Error happened when reading from the tcp server...", err)
                os.Exit(1)
        }

        //display the information
        fmt.Println(string(udp_buffer[0:num]))
        os.Exit(0)
}
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

执行确认

首先将server端运行起来,等待client端的连接

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-udp_server.go

运行client端,可以得到从server端发过的信息

[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-udp_client.go 192.168.32.123:9848
Hello, this is information from udp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 11:25:03.274881649 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#
[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-udp_client.go 192.168.32.123:9848
Hello, this is information from udp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 11:25:05.895074805 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#
[root@liumiaocn goprj]# go run basic-udp_client.go 192.168.32.123:9848
Hello, this is information from udp server , and current time is : 2017-01-31 11:25:09.886004761 -0500 EST
[root@liumiaocn goprj]#

总结

在这篇文章中,我们继续讨论了go语言中Socket通信的两个简单实例,通过这两个例子,实现了TCP和UDP的服务器和客户端的交互。虽然在实际中的应用还有很远一段距离,比如并发的控制上述简单的例子没有涉及到,但是通过这两个例子,已经能看出多进程通信的go的实现方式。

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